INTRODUCTION Cognitive deterioration and dementia, in the elderly population, constitute a significant health problem due to their magnitude and seriousness. Epidemiological studies support the existence of preventable cognitive deterioration risks: vascular factors and factors related to lifestyle. The aim is to detect possible cases of cognitive deterioration in people aged over 65 in the pharmacy area, and to analyse the efficacy of a health education programme for improved cognitive function in a later study.
MATERIAL AND METHODS Transversal study of the prevalence of cognitive deterioration in people aged over 65. The data supplied in this study was obtained from March to June 2011, in four community pharmacies in Valencia. We collected "an informed consent form", “Dáder register" and "specific questionnaire of the variables in the study", a questionnaire that compiles demographic data about lifestyle (exercise, reading, sleep), chronic pathologies and pharmacological treatment. The screening test used is the SPMSQ-Short (Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire by Pfeiffer). Patients with a positive Pfeiffer test will be considered as cases and will later participate in a health education intervention programme in "sleep hygiene", "physical exercise" and "cognitive training".
RESULTS 245 patients collaborated: 97 men (40%) and 148 women (60%), representing 76% of those interviewed. Level of studies: illiterate 26 (11%), primary studies 125 (51%), secondary school studies 65 (26%) and higher studies 29 (12%). 31 participants (13%) had a Pfeiffer rating compatible with cognitive deterioration. Cognitive deterioration was greater among illiterate people (23%) and those who had only completed primary school studies (13%) and lower among the participants who had followed higher education and those who read every day. Among the patients studied, there was less prevalence of deterioration among those treated with antihypertensive medication (11%) than those not treated (16%) and greater prevalence amongst those treated with antidepressants (21%) as opposed to those not treated (12%).
DISCUSSION The screening of a larger number of patients, with the incorporation of a greater number of pharmacies, will allow statistically significant, more conclusive results to be obtained.